Similar Software to Java: 12 best alternatives for 2023

We have 12 alternatives to Java. The best Java alternatives are Apache NetBeans, Eclipse, and C++.
Name Platforms
Apache NetBeans Windows, Mac, Linux.
Eclipse Windows, Mac, Linux.
C++ Windows, Mac, Linux.
IntelliJ IDEA Windows, Mac, Linux.
Golang Windows, Mac, Linux.
NodeJS Windows, Mac, Linux.
Python Windows, Mac, Linux.
PHP Windows, Mac, Linux.
Scala Windows, Mac, Linux.
Ruby Windows, Mac, Linux.
Perl Windows, Mac, Linux.
C Sharp Windows, Mac, Linux.

Nowadays, there are many programming languages, each one specialized in a particular area, and Java is a programming language specialized in object orientation, which allows the development of applications in multiple areas such as security, graphical interfaces, animation, database access, mobile applications, web pages, and much more. Java is one of the most used programming languages worldwide thanks to its simplicity because you don't need to be a programming expert to understand how it works and how to use it, that's why it is the most used for the development of back-end projects. Also, Java stands out for many features, including the creation of reusable modules, which can work without the need to know its internal structure, and this allows the application to work faster. Besides, this feature allows the programmer to add new modules whenever needed, and also to download independent programs thanks to the JVM, Java Virtual Machine.

1. Apache NetBeans

Screenshot of Apache NetBeans. Apache NetBeans runs on Windows, Mac, Linux.

Starting as a student project in Prague, Apache Netbeans has become one of the most used integrated development environments (IDE) for Java. Its original author was Roman Stanek. Its preview release was on November 2020 and nearly 1 year later it was officially released in November 2021. It works on Windows, macOS, Linux, and Solaris operating systems with 28 available languages. In 2010 Oracle bought Apache NetBeans and made them an official Java IDE.

This software is an open-source and free IDE that can be used to develop web applications on desktop and mobile by providing wizards, editors, debugging, and templates. It not only supports coding in Java but also HTML and CSS. Using dynamic tools, the software will systematically highlight source code so that you can refactor it. NetBeans is also the first software to provide support for Java EE7, JDK 7, and JavaFX 2.

To use NetBeans you need to install Java Development Kit (JDK). It has some great features like a start page with regular updates, the auto-complete function, and the ability to switch between project and file.

Apache Netbeans although easy to use, has a complex Java coding system and is not suitable for beginners. You need to have some basic Java coding knowledge to use it.

2. Eclipse

Screenshot of Eclipse. Eclipse runs on Windows, Mac, Linux.

Eclipse is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) that is commonly used by computer programmers. It features a base workspace and a plug-in system that enables you to set your environment. Ideally, it is written in Java therefore its main objective is to develop Java applications.

You can use it to develop other applications using other programming languages such as C++, C#, Fortran, Lasso, Python, COBOL, Haskell, JavaScript, and many more. In addition, it can be used in developing documents with La Tex and other packages. Installing this application is very and only requires a few steps.

Since it is a Java-based application, it will need a Java Runtime Environment(JRE)or Java Development Kit(JDK). Depending on what you want to do with the eclipse, you can choose to install any of them. For example, if you want Eclipse for Java Development, it would be wise to go for JDK. If not and you need to save your disk space then you can install JRE.

3. C++

Screenshot of C++. C++ runs on Windows, Mac, Linux.

C++ is a programming language that is an extension that comes from the C language to be able to manipulate objects, with which it became a pioneering language of the programming that we see at present. Although it is a language that was created many years ago, its power, versatility, and simplicity make it one of the languages in more demand because almost all programs and systems today are programmed in C++, or at least a part was written in this language, from web browsers to operating systems. C++ has remained the favorite language of many programmers because it has remained updated over the years, allowing them to develop, relate and operate with complex data and also implement a wide variety of designs. In addition, it has a large library, where you can find a range of functions that help you write code faster. The best feature of C++ is the high performance it provides because it can make direct calls to the operating system and has many optimization parameters.

4. IntelliJ IDEA

Screenshot of IntelliJ IDEA. IntelliJ IDEA runs on Windows, Mac, Linux.

IntelliJ IDEA is a popular IDE (integrated development environment). Written in Java, it’s meant for developing software. The product was developed in January 2001 by JetBrains. It’s available for use as an Apache 2 Licensed Edition and proprietary Commercial Edition.

IDE offers features such as code completion by analyzing code navigation and the context, which lets users directly jump to a declaration or a class in the code, code debugging, code refactoring, and Linting. Plus, the framework provides options to mend inconsistencies through suggestions.

The IntelliJ IDEA presents integration with packaging/build tools such as Bower, Grunt, SBT, and Gradle. it supports various version control systems such as Mercurial, GIT, SVN, and Perforce. Users can access databases such as Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, SQLite, MySQL, and PostgreSQL from the IDE framework in the Ultimate Edition.

The beauty of the framework is it supports plug-ins. Users can add new functionality to the Framework. You can download and install plug-ins from IntelliJ’s plug-in repository or through the search and install option of IDE’s inbuilt plug-in. The IntelliJ IDEA Framework supports various languages such as CSS, HTML JavaSQL, JavaScript, and others for enhanced software development.

5. Golang

Screenshot of Golang. Golang runs on Windows, Mac, Linux.

Golang is more commonly known as the Go Programming Language used by Google. Since it was introduced into the technology market this is a popular choice used for API writing and the development of web services.

Go language has a similar temperament to many other applications. It is a practical application and is very useful for web frameworks. Golang is supportive of native metaphors and offers valuable features for website services.

The programming language is compiled and it is an open-source program. Developers find it helpful because it is not only trustworthy but also simple to use. There are many developers that utilize the framework to build a rest API with the minimalistic framework.

It possesses the most used features and libraries and is a good option. If there are issues with debugging it is a simple framework to deal with overall. It has straightforward design rules and precise documentation.

6. NodeJS

Screenshot of NodeJS. NodeJS runs on Windows, Mac, Linux.

NodeJS is a JavaScript runtime environment, hence the JS ending in its name. It is an open-source cross-platform, with which you can program and execute code made in JavaScript outside of a web browser. Mainly, it was developed to create scalable applications, providing the ability to establish and manage multiple connections in real-time, so with NodeJS, there are no problems with blocking processes. To create the design of NodeJS they looked at other systems such as Python's Twisted and Ruby's Event Machine but sought to improve it and offer more advanced but easy-to-use features. Among the features that have made NodeJS so popular is the runtime event loop instead of a library, and it is invisible to the user, so it goes unnoticed. In addition, it has no buffer; applications made with NodeJS store data in chunks and not in buffers. These features, together with V8 JavaScript engine, make the system faster because it can execute the code in less time.

7. Python

Screenshot of Python. Python runs on Windows, Mac, Linux.

Python is an object-oriented programming language that has revolutionized the programming industry because it is versatile and easy to learn. Python is open source and is available on its website. Although it is a language similar to Scheme, Perl, and Java, it is currently considered the best object-oriented language because it is cleaner and more minimalistic. One of the advantages of using Python is that it can be programmed in scripting using an interpreter instead of compiling, this is a great time-saver for programmers. Although it is different from Perl, it also resorts to interpreting the code written on the screen to execute the program, but it is more efficient since it has a wide variety of modules included that make life easier for any programmer. With this language, you can program advanced algorithms in just a few lines of code thanks to its simplicity and precision in synthesis, as well as its good readability.

8. PHP

Screenshot of PHP. PHP runs on Windows, Mac, Linux.

PHP is a programming language that was developed 28 years ago by Rasmus Lerdorf, at that time, its name meant Personal Home Page, but today it means Hypertext Preprocessor. It is one of the most widely used languages for developing web pages and applications that use databases even though there are currently more popular programming languages. In fact, it is the sixth most used programming language in the world. PHP has several features that make it such a useful language, such as the fact that it is open-source, which allows any programmer to install it for free, making it an excellent language to learn to program. Besides, PHP is fast and secure because it uses its own memory, which allows it to be faster, something that is essential for any application or web page. In addition, it is a very versatile language because it is compatible with Windows, Mac OS, Linux, and most browsers and web servers today.

9. Scala

Screenshot of Scala. Scala runs on Windows, Mac, Linux.

Scala is a very helpful programming language for it combines object-oriented and useful programming in one brief, high-level language. it is a machine-compiled language which facilitates a multi-core work architecture environment with improved code readability and brief. It helps in avoiding bugs within compound applications. Scala maybe newer than the Java programming but with Scala lines of code are being reduced Since Scala is being used for data processing, distributed computing and web development. When it comes in high-volume projects Scala is the better choice compared to Python because of Scala's static nature that helps in faster compile-error detection. Some believes that Scala is faster than the Java programming it is because of the help of Scala's optimization. That is why it is mainly useful in many companies such as LinkedIn, Twitter, Netflix, Tumblr, Sony, AirBnB, Apple (which is added only last Sept. 2013) this is according to the Scala in the Enterprise but there is still a lot more.

10. Ruby

Screenshot of Ruby. Ruby runs on Windows, Mac, Linux.

Yukihiro Matsumoto designed a scripting program known as Ruby. This program runs on all different platforms including Mac OS, UNIX and Windows. This programming language is general purpose and is used most often for Web Development. This program is meant for humans and not machines and has a powerful implementation in Ruby on Rails, a web framework. This program's syntax is natural to read and very easy to write. The program was designed to be simple and offer programming productivity. Matsumoto has said that the primary purpose of Ruby is to help programmers to be productive, to enjoy programming and be happy. He has said that he enjoys using this program because it helps to minimize programmer work and reduce the confusion associated with that work. Ruby continues to serve the programming community since its inception in 1993. The name of the program originated from an online chat session between Matsumoto and Keiju Ishitsuka.

11. Perl

Screenshot of Perl. Perl runs on Windows, Mac, Linux.

Although Perl is known worldwide as a programming language, technically it is not, it is more of a scripting language, its acronym stands for Practical Extracting and Reporting Language, and as its name suggests, it is used mostly to extract information and generate reports. This language was created 35 years ago by Larry Wall, who was looking for a way to streamline the repetitive tasks of the servers, however, over the years, Perl has evolved and has been constantly updated based on the needs of the community. Perl combines the best features of several programming languages such as C, AWK, and others, making it a versatile language that supports all platforms. Besides, it is worth mentioning that this is a GPL-licensed language, so any user can download it for free. The main use of Perl today is to develop CGI applications and scripts for web pages and web servers.

12. C Sharp

Screenshot of C Sharp. C Sharp runs on Windows, Mac, Linux.

Programming languages such as C#, are a sequence of instructions that are written in codes that have the main characteristic of being understood by the computers where they are executed, C# has the versatility of being a very simple language, the set of rules for writing expressions, comparisons, instructions, and symbols, both arithmetic, logical, binary, and others are very simple to use by those who write the codes, the way in which the storage places must be declared, such as variables, constants, and the different kinds of arrays, are easy to learn and apply. It is known as one of the languages that work object-oriented, this language was developed by Microsoft to provide developers with a very easy-to-use tool to design applications that can be executed allowing the compilation and execution of the same in XML web environments, for those who know and understand the logic of programming, C# is an ideal tool.